Great Salt Lake is a unique place in the Western Hemisphere because large concentrations of birds visit there… The disappearance of Great Salt Lake wetlands could mean the disappearance of whole species of birds.
Gonzalo Castro, Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network
Much has been made of the tragic loss of rain forests in our hemisphere... But, in fact, because of their productivity of plant and animal matter rich in fats and proteins, freshwater marshes are the most productive ecosystems on Earth.
Charles Potter, former Executive Director, North American Wildlife Foundation
We live along the Great Salt Lake, one of the most extraordinary natural features in North America. I do not believe we, as a community, have honored its rarity. Our lack of intimacy toward this inland sea is not out of neglect, but of ignorance. We do not know the nature of this vast body of water that sparkles and sings. If we did, the shores of the Great Salt Lake would look different.
Terry Tempest Williams, FRIENDS of Great Salt Lake Advisory Board
This is a fragile place, and a place where naked forms themselves give shape to our own often shapeless spiritual longings. We often wish to experience the non-city and the non-developed, to come close to a place where familiar things are not.
Will South, Images of Great Salt Lake, 1996
To travelers so long shut among the mountain ranges a sudden view over the expanse of silent waters had in it something sublime. Several large islands raised their rocky heads out of the waves. . . . Then, a storm burst down with sudden fury upon the lake, and entirely hid the islands from our view.John C. Fremont, Report of the Exploring Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, 1845
We suggest that Great Salt Lake is a phenomenal asset to the state of Utah. Its mineral resources have been appreciated for almost 150 years. Brine shrimp are now appreciated because they are economically valuable. To only a very limited extent is the lake appreciated for tourism, for culture, for earth systems history and for education.
Scientific Review Committee, Comments to the Great Salt Lake Management Planning Team, 1999
We live along the shores of something GREAT - Great Salt Lake.
And whether we preceive it or not
During its relatively short life as a remnant of ancient Lake Bonneville
It has affected all of us.
From the ancients who lived in the Great Salt lake wetlands
To the growing populations of today and tomorrow
The Lake affect continues to modify, influence and impress our lives.
Lynn de Freitas, FRIENDS Executive Director
It is a desert of water in a desert of salt and mud and rock, one of the most desolate and desolately beautiful of regions. Its sunsets, seen across water that reflects like polished metal, are incredible. Its colors are of a staring, chemical purity. The senses are rubbed raw by its moonlike horizons, its mirages, its parching air, its moody and changeful atmosphere.
Wallace Stegner, "Dead Heart of the West" in American Places, 1981
The Utah Division of Water Quality (DWQ) has issued a draft modification for the Ground Water Discharge Permit (UGW350011) for the proposed expansion of the Kennecott Utah Copper Tailings Impoundment. Public comments are due August 12, 2013. The conservation community has a number of concerns about the adequacy and the timing of this proposed permit and is calling on DWQ to withdraw the draft permit until sufficient information is available to fully inform the permitting process and the public.
DWQ’s proposed approval now of this permit modification is premature. Approval of the enlarged footprint of the Tailings Impoundment is still under consideration by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and it is likely that the Corps will require changes to that proposal which would make this permit modification moot. The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the project will not be issued by the Corps until sometime next year, with a Final EIS unlikely until late 2014 or 2015. Both DWQ’s decision and the public comments on that decision should be informed by information produced by the EIS.
The proposed expansion is a massive project requiring several additional major, time-consuming approvals, including permission to realign four miles of the Union Pacific railroad tracks and to build an overpass bridge along 7200 West. The groundwater permit modification is not urgent.
DWQ admits that arsenic levels in the shallow groundwater have exceeded water quality standards, but refuses to consider whether the arsenic in these aquifers is contributing to the high levels of arsenic in the Great Salt Lake’s Gilbert Bay. There is no quantification of the level of arsenic pollution cased by the Tailings Impoundment or historic operations in the area – nor any plans to ascertain those levels.
DWQ makes unsubstantiated assertions that there will be no significant degradation of groundwater quality without defining what that means or suggesting any plans to prevent further degradation. DWQ admits that the weight of the Tailings Impoundment (at over 290 feet high!) will cause movement of waters in the tailings through the Bonneville Clay layer into the underlying aquifers.
DWQ makes unjustified assertions that the passive use of the Bonneville Clay layer as a liner constitutes “Best Available Technology” for minimizing discharges of pollutants, thus exempting Kennecott from installing additional liners under the expansion. This despite knowing that the clay is thin in some locations and missing in others, and that contamination of groundwater has occurred.
There are significant questions whether the waste streams authorized under this permit for placement in the Tailings Impoundment are exempt from treatment as hazardous waste (under RCRA).
There are questions whether there will be adequate measures put into place to prevent acidification of the tailings materials long term and after KUC’s mining ceases.
DWQ should wait until the completion of the EIS process - there is no reason for DWQ to issue approval of this permit at this time.
UDOT is proposing to build a $600M+ freeway through West Davis and Weber Counties. The high speed 4 lane elevated freeway will cut through neighborhoods, family farms, wildlife habitat and wetlands while increasing vehicle miles traveled, exacerbate poor air quality conditions, impact water quality, and change the landscape forever.
Attend public hearings on the proposed West Davis Freeway and let your voice be heard.
Adler, RW. 1999. Toward Comprehensive Watershed-Based Restoration and Protection for Great Salt Lake, University of Utah College of Law, Utah Law Review Vol. 1999 Number 1, 99-204 p.
Arnow, T. 1980. Water budget and water-surface fluctuations of Great Salt Lake. In J.W. Gwynn (ed.), Great Salt Lake: a scientific, historical and economic overview. Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City: 255-264.
Arnow, T and DW Stephens. 1990. Hydrologic characteristics of the Great Salt Lake, Utah: 1847-1986: US Geologic Survey Water-Supply Paper 2332, 1 plate, 32 p.
Barrie, A, JE Davies, AJ Park, and CT Workman. 1989. Continuous-flow stable isotope analysis for biologists. Spectrophotometry 4:44-52.
Berthélémy-Okazaki, NJ and D Hedgecock. 1987. Effect of environmental factors on cyst formation in the brine shrimp Artemia. In P. Sorgeloos, D.A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia research and its applications. Vol. 3. Ecology, culturing, use in aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren. Belgium: 167-182.
Birch, LC. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. J. anim. Ecol. 17:15-26.
Brown, RA. 1980. Reproductive pattern and mode in the brine shrimp. Ecology 61: 466-470.
Brown, RA. 1982. The costs of reproduction in brine shrimp. Ecology 63:43-47.
Casella, G. and R.L. Berger. 1990. Statistical inference. Brooks/Cole. Pacific Grove, 650 pp.
Carlson, RE. 1977. A trophic state index for lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 22: 361-369.
Cooper, SD, DW Winkler, and PH Lenz. 1984. The effect of grebe predation on a brine shrimp population. J. anim. Ecol. 53:51-64.
Conte, FP, RS Jellison and GL Starrett. 1988.Nearshore and pelagic abundances of Artemia monica in Mono Lake, California. Hydrobiologia 158: 173-181.
Christensen, RC, DW Stephens, GE Pyper, HF McCormack, and JF Weigel 1984. Quality and quantity of runoff and atmospheric deposition in urban areas of Salt Lake County, Utah, 1980-81: US Geological Survey Water- Resources Investigations Report 84-4011, 223 p.
Crumpton, WG. 1987. A simple and reliable method for making permanent mounts of phytoplankton for light and fluorescence microscopy. Limnol. Oceanogr. 32:1154-1159.
Dana, GL and PH Lenz. 1986. Effects of increasing salinity on an Artemia population from Mono Lake, California. Oecologia 68:428-436.
Dana, GL, R Jellison and JM Melack. 1990. Artemia monica cyst production and recruitment in Mono Lake, California, USA. Hydrobiologia 197: 233-243.
Dana, GL, R Jellison, and JM Melack. 1995. Effects of different natural regimes of temperature and food on survival, growth and development of Artemia monica Verrill. J. Plankton Res. 17:2117-2130.
D'Agostino, A. 1980. The vital requirement of Artemia: physiology and nutrition. In G. Persoone, P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels & E. Jaspers (eds), The brine shrimp Artemia, 2. Physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium: 55-82.
Hammer, UT. 1986. Saline lake ecosystems of the world. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 616 pp.
Holm-Hansen, O and B Riemann. 1978. Chlorophyll-a determination: improvements in methodology. Oikos 30: 438-447.
Javor, B. 1989. Hypersaline environments: microbiology and biogeochemistry. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 328 pp.
Jellison, R and JM Melack. 1993. Algal photosynthetic activity and its response to meromixis in hypersaline Mono Lake, California. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38: 818-837.
Kuruppu, MM and SUK Ekaratne. 1995. Ecology and population structure of the Artemia parthenogenetica population inhabiting a major saltern in Sri Lanka. Int. J. salt Lake Res. 4:117-131.
Lenz, PH. 1984. Life-history analysis of an Artemia population in a changing environment. J. Plankton Res. 6:967-983.
Lenz, PH. 1987. Ecological studies on Artemia: a review. In P. Sorgeloos, D.A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia research and its applications, 3. Ecology, culturing, use in aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren. Belgium: 5-18.
Lenz, PH and GL Dana. 1987. Life-cycle studies in Artemia: a comparison between a sub-tropical and a temperate population. In P. Sorgeloos, D.A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds) Artemia research and its applications, 3. Ecology, culturing, use in aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren. Belgium: 88-100.
Marcarelli, AM, MD Mills and WA Wurtsbaugh. 2001. The Great Salt Lake doesn't stink... But Farmington Bay does! FRIENDS of Great Salt Lake Newsletter 7(2): 5, 13; 7(4):6.
McCormack, HF, RC Christensen, DW Stephens, GE Pyper, JF Weigel, and LS Conroy. 1983. Surface water and climatalogic data, Salt Lake County, Utah, Water Year 1981, with selected data for water years 1980 SN 1982: US Geologic Survey Open-File Report 83-694, 586p.
Melack, JM and R Jellison. 1998. Limnological conditions in Mono Lake: Contrasting monomixis and meromixis in the 1990s. Hydrobiologia 384:21-39.
Montague, CL, WR Fey and DM Gillespie. 1982. A causal hypothesis explaining predator-prey dynamics in Great Salt Lake, Utah. Ecological Modeling 17:243-270.
Persoone, G and P Sorgeloos. 1980. General aspects of the ecology and biogeography of Artemia. In G. Persoone, P. Sorgeloos, O. Roels & E. Jaspers (eds), The brine shrimp Artemia, 3. Ecology, culturing, use in aquaculture. Universa Press, Wetteren: 3-23.
Post, FJ. 1981. Microbiology of the Great Salt Lake north arm. Hydrobiologia 81:59-69.
Pyper, GE, RC Christensen, DW Stephens, HF McCormack, and LS Conroy 1981. Surface-water and climatological data, Salt Lake County, Utah. Water Year 1980: US Geological Survey Open-File Report 81-1111, 167 p.
Reiss, CS, IA McLaren, and PA Avendaño. 1999. Utility of storage lipid volumes in inferring recent trophic history of copepods. Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 56:2444-2449.
Savage, A and B Knott. 1998. Artemia parthenogenetica in Lake Hayward, Western Australia. I. Interrupted recruitment into adult stages in response to seasonal limnology. Int. J. Salt Lake Res. 7: 1-12.
Simms, Steven R and Mark E. Stuart. 2002. Ancient American Indian Life in the Great Salt Lake Wetlands: Archaeological and Biological Evidence In Great Salt Lake, Utah 1980 Through 1998, edited by J. Wallace Gwynn, Utah Geological Survey Publications, Salt Lake City.
Simms, Steven R. 1999. Farmers, Foragers, and Adaptive Diversity: The Great Salt Lake Wetlands Project. In Understanding Prehistoric Lifeways in the Great Basin Wetlands: Bioarchaeological Reconstruction and Interpretation, edited by B.E. Hemphill and C. S. Larsen, pp. 21-54. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Simms, Steven R. and Anan W. Raymond. 1999 . No One Owns the Deceased! The Treatment of Human Remains From Three Great Basin Cases. (Feb 00),. In Understanding Prehistoric Lifeways in the Great Basin Wetlands: Bioarchaeological Reconstruction and Interpretation, edited by B.E. Hemphill and C. S. Larsen, pp. 8-20. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Sorgeloos, P, P Lavens, P Léger, W Tackaert, D Versichele. 1986. Manual for the culture and use of brine shrimp Artemia in aquaculture. State University of Ghent. Faculty of Agriculture, 319 pp.
Stephens, DW 1969. The physical and chemical environmental requirements of Trichoptera in the Weber River, Utah. MS thesis, Univ. of Utah, 72 p.
Stephens, DW and DM Gillespie, 1972. Community structure and ecosystem analysis of the Great Salt Lake. pp. 66-72, IN: JP Riley, ed., The Great Salt Lake and Utah's Water Resources, Proc. First Ann. Conf. Utah Section American Water Resources Assoc., Utah Water Research Lab., Logan.
Stephens, DW 1974. Limnological considerations of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of Utah, 123 p.
Stephens, DW 1976. Liquid scintillation counting of filtered algae in primary production studies. US Geological Survey Journal of Research 4(6):753-756.
Stephens, DW and DM Gillespie. 1976. Phytoplankton production in the Great Salt Lake, Utah and a laboratory study of algal response to enrichment. Limnology and Oceanography 21(1):74-87.
Stephens, DW and DM Gillespie. 1977. Some aspects of plankton dynamics in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Pp. 401-409, In: DC Greer, ed., Desertic Terminal Lakes, Utah Water Research Lab., Logan.
Stephens, DW. 1984. Dissolved-oxygen regime of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah: US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4056, 56 p.
Stephens, DW. 1984. Water-quality investigations of the Jordan River, Salt Lake County, Utah, 1980-82: US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4298, 45 p.
Stephens, DW. 1988. Great Salt Lake: An expanding sea in the Utah desert: US Geological Survey Yearbook for 1986, pp. 77-82.
Stephens, DW and T Arnow. 1988. Fluctuations of water level, water quality and biota of Great Salt Lake, Utah, 1847-1986: p. 181-194 In: RS Kopp and RE Cohenour eds., Cenzoic geology of western Utah, Utah Geologic Assoc. Publ. 16.
Stephens, DW and B Waddell. 1989. Selenium contamination from irrigation drainage in western United States with emphasis on Utah: pp. 165-181 In: Geology and hydrology of hazardous waste, mining-waste, waste water, and repository sites in Utah, Utah Geologic Assoc. Publication 17.
Stephens, DW. 1990. Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake Utah, USA, (1947-1987): Hydrobiologia 197:130-146.
Stephens, DW. 1992. Selenium contamination of waterfowl areas in Utah and options for management, p. 301- 311 In Robarts RD and ML Bothwell, eds., Aquatic ecosystems in semi-arid regions Implications for resource management: National Hydrology Research Institute Symposium Series 7, Environmental Canada, Saskatoon.
Stephens, DW and LJ Gerner. 1996. Utah wetland resources: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2425, p. 375-380.
Stephens, DW. 1998.Salinity-induced changes in the aquatic ecosystem of Great Salt Lake, Utah: pp. 1-8 in Pitman, J., and A. Carroll, eds., Modern and Ancient Lakes, Utah Geological Association, Salt Latke City, Utah.
Stephens, DW. 1998.Salinity-induced changes in the aquatic ecosystem of Great Salt Lake, Utah: pp. 1-8 in Pitman, J., and A. Carroll, eds., Modern and Ancient Lakes, New problems and perspectives, Utah Geological Association, Salt Latke City, Utah.
Stephens, DW and P Birdsey. In press. Population dynamics of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscanis, in Great Salt Lake and regulation of commercial shrimp harvest. Hydrobiologia xxx.
Sterner, RW, DD Hagemeier, WL Smith, and RF Smith. 1993. Phytoplankton nutrient limitation and food quality for Daphnia. Limnol. Oceanogr. 38:857-871.
Sturm, PA, GC Sanders, and KA Allen. 1980. The brine shrimp industry on the Great Salt Lake. In J.W. Gwynn (ed.), Great Salt Lake: a scientific, historical and economic overview. Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City: 243-248.
Tayler, PL, LA Hutchinson, and MK Muir. 1980. Heavy metals in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. In J.W. Gwynn (ed.), Great Salt Lake: a scientific, historical and economic overview. Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City: 195-200.
Torrentera, L. 1993. Ecology and evolution of Yucatan peninsula Artemia. Ph.D. thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Wisconsin, USA, 104 pp.
Vanhaecke, P and P Sorgeloos. 1980. International study on Artemia. XIV. Growth and survival of Artemia larvae of different geographical origin in a standard culture test. Marine Ecology - Progress Series 3: 303-307.
Wear, RG and SJ Haslett. 1986. Effects of temperature and salinity on the biology of Artemia franciscana Kellogg from Lake Grassmere, New Zealand. 1. Growth and mortality. J. exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 98:153-166
Wear, RG, SJ Haslett, and NL Alexander. 1986. Effects of temperature and salinity on the biology of Artemia franciscana Kellogg from Lake Grassmere, New Zealand. 2. Maturation, fecundity, and generation times. J. exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 98:167-183.
Wear, RG and SJ Haslett. 1987. Studies on the biology and ecology of Artemia from Lake Grassmere, New Zealand. In: P. Sorgeloos, D.A. Bengtson, W. Decleir & E. Jaspers (eds), Artemia research and its applications, 3. Ecology, culturing, use in aquaculture. Universa Press. Wetteren, Belgium: 101-133.
Wetzel, RG and GE Likens. 1990. Limnological analyses, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag. New York, 391pp.
Wirick, CW. 1972. The Dunaliella-Artemia plankton community of the Great Salt Lake, Utah M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Biology, University of Utah, 20 pp.
Wurtsbaugh, W and J Cech. 1983. Growth and activity in Gambusia affinis fry: Temperature and ration effects. Trans. am. Fish. Soc. 112: 653-660.
Wurtsbaugh, W. 1988. Iron, molybdenum and phosphorus limitation of N2 fixation maintains nitrogen deficiency of plankton in the Great Salt Lake drainage (Utah, USA). Verh. int. Ver. Limnol. 23:121-130.
Wurtsbaugh, WA. 1992. Food-web modification by an invertebrate predator in the Great Salt Lake (USA). Oecologia 89:168-175.
Wurtsbaugh, WA and TS Berry. 1990. Cascading effects of decreased salinity on the plankton, chemistry, and physics of the Great Salt Lake (Utah). Can. J. Fish. aquat. Sci. 47: 100-109.
Wurtsbaugh, WA, and ZM Gliwicz. In press. Limnological control of brine shrimp population dynamics and cyst production in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Hydrobiologia.
The 2018 Great Salt Lake Issues Forum will be May 9,10 + 11th at the University of Utah Fort Douglas Officers Club. The program title is Lake Elevated. Keeping the Lake Great.
Since 1996, we have been hosting the GSL Issues Forum as a way to encourage constructive dialogue about the future of the Lake’s ecosystems and its resources, and to illuminate the complexities involved in research, management, and planning for the Lake. We do this by exploring the Lake from many different angles and in many different contexts--far beyond its resource development potential--to emphasize its ecological value as well as the intrinsic value it contributes to our history, culture, and spirit. And because Great Salt Lake is hemispherically important to millions of migratory birds, the forum reaches beyond our own backyard into the region, the hemisphere, and to global communities with saline systems to learn from others who are working with similar challenges.
With our growing awareness of trends in near record low elevations of the Lake coupled with less than stellar snowpack conditions and climate change, the time is ripe to bring people together to engage in timely and productive discussions about Utah’s water future and how Great Salt Lake fits into that picture.
Be a part of something Great as we bring together the artists, historians, scientists, educators, policy makers, academics, and industry representatives, all of whom recognize the tremendous asset this unique ecosystem is to our culture, our community, and our consciousness.
More program details coming soon.